The Spanish Civil War (1935 – 1939)
(Guerra Civil Española)
Miguel Primo de Rivera (Miguel Primo De Rivera Y Orbaneja, Marqués De Estella) controlled Spain from (1923 – 1930) through a cruel dictatorship. He adopted the motto ‘Country, Religion, Monarchy’. There were three attempts to overthrow his regime as he lost support from the public, especially the middle class, and the army refused to support him which forced him to resign, and he died not long after ages 60.
The Civil war was a knock-on effect from previous decades of political unrest. The war was fought from two sides.
• The Nationalists who were predominantly Roman Catholics who comprised of military, land owners and wealthy businessmen.
• The Republicans were mainly common labourers and the middle class, who were supported by anarchists and communism.
In 1936 Spain was controlled by a Republican government who was run by a Manuel Azaña Díaz. The Spanish Republican Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de la República Española) declared a pronunciamiento which is a military rebellion or a coup d’état under the control of José Sanjurjo y Sacanell.
The Nationalists uprising group was supported by a number of organisations including:
• Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (A right wing political party)
• Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (Catholic conservatives)
• Alfonsism (supported the return of Alfonso XIII as the king of Spain)
• Carlism (they wished to claim the throne on behalf of the Bourbon dynasty, especially Carlos de Borbón)
After Sanjurjo’s death, Francisco Franco Bahamonde became leader of the Nationalists and took the title Generalissimo, and gained support from Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler, and Fascist Italy under Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini.
The Republicans gained support from the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin and Mexico under Lázaro Cárdenas del Río.
According to a report filed by the MI5, Joseph Stalin, set out a plan to have ‘Franco’ assassinated. Nikolai Yezhov, head of the KGB, had a reign of terror, and one general (Walter Krivitisky) managed to escape, and submitted a file of information to intelligence officers on Yezhov.
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Franco’s Spain, 1939–1975
Francisco Franco Bahamone (December 1892 – 20 November 1975) became the head of state in Spain from (1939 – 1975) under the title of Caudillo and Su Excelencia el Jefe de Estado” (“His Excellency the Head of State”) Francoist Spain (España franquista) lasted 46 years under his dictatorship. Historians label this time as a fascistized dictatorship.
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