About ΉΣᄂIᄃӨП,

My name is Karl, and I have interests in theology, psychology, philosophy, science and ethics. World of Humanism is where I’m free to share my thoughts

To lie, or not to lie, that is the question

There is a fine line between ignorance and stupidity, and many people wilfully accept both. Everyone is born ignorant, but you’ve got to apply strict dedication to maintain stupidity, especially where religion is concerned. One of the things that I find deeply disturbing is their unwillingness to educate themselves on the natural world in favour of their supernatural mythology. This is a classic case of confirmation bias, in which they favour what sits in line with their belief rather than provided evidence and facts. It’s like they mentally train themselves to ignore anything that can contract their faith, and if they don’t understand, or don’t think something is plausible, then regardless of peer reviewed sources, they’ll refuse to accept its validity.

Earlier today I briefly engaged with an anonymous user on Twitter who claimed that he wasn’t an animal, he was a human. He is indeed correct in that he is a human being;

∙ Kingdom: Animalia;

∙ Phylum: Chordata;

∙ Class: Mammalia;

∙ Order: Primates;

∙ Family: Hominidae;

∙ Genus: Homo;

∙ Species: Homo sapiens;

But it’s a bit more complicated that being just a human. Life on Earth is separated into five very distinct categories, and whilst we are human, we are also mammals of the primate family that includes all of the other great apes that include; gorilla, bonobo, chimpanzee and orangutan. We are a component of the Animalia Kingdom, and we don’t fit the category of the other four kingdoms that are Monera, Protista, Fungi, and Plantae. Despite this being explained to him several times, he refused to acknowledge it as he felt it was dehumanising him.

“The Lord detests lying lips, but he delights in people who are trustworthy.” – Proverbs 12:22

Was he intentionally lying, ignorant or afflicted with stupidity, or a combination of all three? Personally I’d say he was blatantly lying to himself as the answers to what classification humans are defined as is at anyone’s fingertips if they are prepared to put in the research. Deception is a sin to the believer, and they have a tendency to take sin very seriously, so why do they feel compelled to lie so often? Jesus allegedly said that Satan was the father of lies, so why have they allowed Satan to take them away from their path of righteousness, if their faith is so strong? Is the temptation of lying too great, or is it a necessity if you wish to be rewarded with wealth? Take Pat Robertson, Kenneth Copeland, Ray Comfort, or my personal favourite disingenuous charlatan, Ken Ham.

‪The Bible has noble poetry in it… and some good morals and a wealth of obscenity, and upwards of a thousand lies.” – Mark Twain‬

Some may argue that lying is a natural human function, and that sometimes it can’t be helped. This is true, and sometimes you will say something untrue to spare someone’s feelings, or to avoid another person’s embarrassment, but to purposefully be deceitful, with an agenda to cause personal gain at someone else’s expense is an abomination; yes Ken Ham, I’m looking at you and your Answers in Genesis foundation. The ninth commandment is said to prevent perversion of justice and people use the Bible in courts of law to swear under oath. I’d love to get Ken Ham on the stand, and ask him this question. ‘Considering you’re clearly well read and articulate in the way that you present yourself, how can you sleep at night knowing that you are getting rich from the gullibility and weak mindedness of the common American Christian who believes that you are being genuine about your young creationism claim, and that humans coexisted with dinosaurs?’ Would he be in a state of mental conflict, as he wouldn’t wish to be charged with perjury, or would be be as disingenuous as ever and lie before his god?

“All liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death” – Revelation 21:8

Georges Lemaître and the hypothesis of the primeval atom

Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître‘ was a Belgian priest born in the 19th century, and is evidence that despite being devoutly religious, you can believe in god and separate that belief from science and reality. As well as being a priest, he was a professor of physics at the Catholic University of Leuven, and a keen cosmologist. During World War I he served as an artillery officer in the Belgian army, and when the war ended he studied to become a priest and was ordained in 1923. Between 1925 and 1927 he studied solar physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in America and obtained his Ph.D, and where he studied the works of ‘Edwin Hubble‘, and his ‪theories surrounding an expanding universe, which he’d observed through an extremely powerful telescope at Mt. Wilson in California‬

Georges Lemaître 07/17/1894 – 06/20/1966

Upon his return to Belgium he proposed that due to the neighbouring galaxies moving away from us in different directions, then an obvious conclusion would be a massive cosmic force and he proposed the Big Bang theory using ‘Albert Einstein’s’ theory of general relativity that he published 11 years prior. Georges never actually referred to the cosmic event as the Big Bang as he named it ‘hypothesis of the primeval atom’. Albert Einstein disregarded George’s theory as nonsense, but in later life he considered it as one of the most important theories in science. of the primeval atom’. His theory was in simple terms that to explain why the universe was expanding, it must have had a point of origin where everything within the universe was packed within an object of infinite density. This object of infinite density is what he described as the primeval atom.

“The radius of space began at zero; the first stages of the expansion consisted of a rapid expansion determined by the mass of the initial atom, almost equal to the present mass of the universe. If this mass is sufficient, and the estimates which we can make indicate that this is indeed so, the initial expansion was able to permit the radius to exceed the value of the equilibrium radius. The expansion thus took place in three phases: a first period of rapid expansion in which the atom-universe was broken into atomic stars, a period of slowing-down, followed by a third period of accelerated expansion. It is doubtless in this third period that we find ourselves today, and the acceleration of space which followed the period of slow expansion could well be responsible for the separation of stars into extra-galactic nebulae.” – Georges Lemaître

‪Whilst Georges Lemaître was a devout believer, he was a scientist as heart, and he said that through religion and science he had two avenues to search for the truth, but they must always be kept separate. You can’t help but admire a religious person who rejects the idea of creationism and accepts that science is the answer to the birth of the universe. I read that he once said that if the theory of relativity was a creation of god, it would have been declared in the Bible. When he first published his theory, it received little attention, and it wasn’t until the prominent English astronomer ‘Arthur Eddington‘ had it translated and published in the ‘Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society‘ in 1931. It wasn’t until 18 years later that astronomer ‘Fred Hoyle’ mockingly called it the ‘Big Bang’ and that name stuck.‬

In 1929, ‘Edwin Hubble‘ proposed the Hubble constant, which is a theory that the further away galaxies are from Earth, the faster they are moving away, and this was originally known as Hubble’s law, but in 2018, scientists voted to rename it to ‘Hubble–Lemaître law‘, due to Georges Lemaître proposing it, and Hubble refining it.

‪Do theists understand the true concept of philosophy? ‬

Philosophy is a strong interest of mine, and I’ve read works by a number of notable philosophers. Some people regard philosophy as nonsense, but I vehemently disagree, and I claim that it’s a genuine science. Whereas the study of science involves the scientific method, and philosophy doesn’t, they both share strong scepticism and doubt. Oxford dictionary defines ‘philosophy‘ as the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence. Science was born from philosophy and many of the most notable scientists throughout history have been philosophers, like Galileo, Newton, and Einstein, as philosophy arms scientists with theoretical thinking and questions. Both philosophy and science attempt to remove doubt to get to a truth, and with this in mind I don’t think either can work without the other.

“There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance” – Socrates

Natural philosophy is about studying nature and the universe in its physical form, and this is an area that Isaac Newton was interested in, and it usually partners biology and physics. So regarding the title of this article, can a theist truly philosophise, if philosophy is about the nature of knowledge and reality? They can, but I’m not convinced they can do it whilst viewing the world as God’s creation, and any true philosopher who’s seeking the truth of reality cannot do it through a biased perspective. I don’t think philosophy can be influenced by prejudice or biased opinions, as you aren’t going to get to the truth. You’ve got to be rational, ask the right questions, and use the evidence that you have.

“The saddest aspect of life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom.” – Isaac Asimov

The debate over philosophy being a science has gone on for a long time, and philosophy precedes science, and science evolved out of philosophy, but philosophy also evolves as we acquire more knowledge of the reality we are in. Science is derived from the Latin word ‘scientia’ which means ‘knowledge’. Philosophy is derived from the word ‘philosophia’ which means ‘love of wisdom’. The Oxford dictionary defines ‘wisdom‘ as the quality of having experience, knowledge, and good judgement. Philosophy is usually broken down into several key areas and these are:

• Aesthetics – a set of principles concerning nature and the appreciation of beauty

• Epistemology – the theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope

• Logic – reasoning conducted or assessed according to strict principles of validity

• Ethics – the branch of knowledge that deals with moral principles

• Metaphysics – the fundamental nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and matter, between substance and attribute, and between potentiality and actuality

• Science – the foundations, methods, and implications of science

“philosophy’s contribution can take at least four forms: the clarification of scientific concepts, the critical assessment of scientific assumptions or methods, the formulation of new concepts and theories, and the fostering of dialogue between different sciences, as well as between science and society.” – Source

‪Is the philosophy of religion an oxymoron if philosophy deals with reality? Canterbury Christ church university made this ridiculous claim, ‘Even the dullest person can see that religion is, once again, the most important factor in the world.’ I whole heartedly disagree with this statement, and for reasons that you are all probably aware of, as I’m not shy in expressing my distaste for the arrogance of religion, but claiming it’s the most important factor in the world, and putting it before humanity and other sentient life is absolutely disgraceful. How can you take the philosophy of religion seriously if they can’t even think critically? I could probably list 100 things more important than religion.

As I’ve already stated, philosophy is about studying knowledge, but can there be true knowledge when the evidence is subjective? Because 9 out of every ten in this world have belief in a god, doesn’t mean they are correct, and considering there are many gods, and many interpretations of the same gods, it’s got no basis of fact. If everyone believed in the same god, then there’d at least be a common argument, but they don’t. St. Augustine of Hippo claimed that God was eternal, incorruptible, and necessary, which are all subjective. We don’t know he’s eternal, or incorruptible as it’s just speculation that the Christian god exists, and I can say with absolute certainty that he’s not necessary for me. ‬

‪The works of Plato and Aristotle had significant influence on early Christian theologists, and despite both of them being clearly intelligent men, their thoughts were abstract at best. Thomas Aquinas was a keen follower of Aristotle’s work and he believed that his philosophy and theology could move the Christian doctrine in a new direction by applying reason and revelation, but surely they are adversaries? According to Oxford dictionary ‘revelation‘ means the divine or supernatural disclosure to humans of something relating to human existence, and ‘reason’ means the power of the mind to think, understand, and form judgements logically. I was involved in an exchange on Twitter several days ago and the person I was engaging claimed that he used faith and logic. A similar principle to what Aquinas proposed, but you can’t accept something on faith alone and claim to have reached your conclusion using logic. ‬

‪”Religion is something left over from the infancy of our intelligence, it will fade away as we adopt reason and science as our guidelines.” – Bertrand Russell‬

Evolution of emotions

I was interacting with a user on Twitter who claimed that souls are real, and just because you can’t see them, or science can’t prove or disprove them, doesn’t mean they don’t exist. He suggested that someone can claim love for someone else, but can we prove love really exists. My reply was to inform him that love is an emotion and emotions exist, but there’s no proof of a soul, and it’s a product of religious brainwashing. I told him that brain scans by neurologists have studied the effects emotions have for decades, and it’s actually become a science of its own.

“Human emotions have deep evolutionary roots, a fact that may explain their complexity and provide tools for clinical practice.” – Robert Plutchik

What is an emotion?

An emotion is a biological state that’s triggered through a variety of experiences, like thoughts, feelings, stimulants, experiences, or responses, and can be both positive, negative or ambivalent. Emotions are not only a mental state, but can also be physiological in the way the heart can speed up when you experience fear, or you can perspire. Your breathing can quicken and you may tense up. When you are embarrassed you can blush, and when you are angry your face can go red. Everyone suffers a variety of emotions throughout their days that can be from happiness to sadness, anger to euphoria, love to hate, and these can affect our decisions in a variety of ways, sometimes positively and sometimes negatively. Emotions that are strong can affect our judgement and cause irrationality, like love for instance. Love can make people do very erratic things that under normal circumstances they wouldn’t even consider, and hate works in the same way. Psychiatrists often put emotions into three distinct categories and they are:

Subjective experience

Physiological response

Behavioural response

Emotions are subjective and different to each person. Take anger as an example. Two people could have their cars stolen, and both can be angry, but the first person is angry that they’ll have to report it to the police and take the bus home, so they see it as more of an inconvenience; whereas the second person could be in a fit of rage, as they’ve had their personal property violated, and that was their dream car, and if they get their hands on the thief who took it, they will tear them apart. Emotions can also be ambivalent which is mixed feelings. You’re going on your first date with someone and you’re extremely nervous as what if she doesn’t like you, or you say something idiotic and make a fool of yourself. But at the same time you’re extremely excited as she could potentially be the one, and her smile makes your heart melt.

The physiological response is butterflies in your stomach, dry mouth, sweaty palms, racing heart, rapid blinking, changing of facial expressions, tensing of muscles or posture. These are all involuntary changes that are controlled by your nervous system and are triggered by various emotions. You are going for the interview for your dream job, and you know that you will have to shake the hand of the interviewer, but your palms are sweaty, and you’ve already stuttered to the receptionist and you have the feeling of falling, and your mouth is dry. This is anxiety and nervousness as it obviously matters to you and you’re desperate to make a good impression, but your nervous system is betraying you.

Behavioural response is the actual feeling of emotion, and the ability to recognise emotions in other people as you’ve seen the signs from your own experiences. Someone you know has lost their pet and they are distraught, and you’ve been in the same position yourself as you lost your dog a year ago. You know they are very sad, they’ve lost a friend and their life will now have an empty space in it. You try to show empathy and be sympathetic, but you know that no amount of comforting will ease their grief, only over time will their suffering subside. There are also actions that can be taken when feeling an emotion. Anger can lead to violence, happiness can lead to dancing or hugging someone, and love can lead to sexual interaction, or intimacy.

“Emotions are a process, a particular kind of automatic appraisal influenced by our evolutionary and personal past, in which we sense that something important to our welfare is occurring, and a set of psychological changes and emotional behaviors begins to deal with the situation.” – Paul Ekman

Paul Ekman‘ is a psychologist from Washington, DC, and has a PhD in clinical psychology. He’s an expert on emotions and facial expressions, which he claims is an indicator of lying. Regarding his expertise in emotions, he clams that there are seven groups of universal emotions.

‪• Anger – a strong feeling of annoyance, displeasure, or hostility‬

‪• Fear – an unpleasant emotion caused by the threat of danger, pain, or harm‬

‪• Sadness – the feeling of being unhappy, especially when something bad has happened‬

‪• Disgust – a feeling of revulsion or strong disapproval aroused by something unpleasant or offensive‬

‪• Surprise – an unexpected or astonishing event, or fact‬

‪• Anticipation – a feeling of excitement about something pleasant or exciting that you expect to happen‬

‪• Trust – firm belief in the reliability, truth, or ability of someone or something‬

‪• Joy – a feeling of great pleasure and happiness‬

Dr. Robert Plutchik‘ was a professor who studied psychology and psychotherapy, and was considered an expert in the field of emotions, and the above image is ‘Plutchik’s wheel of emotions‘. He was of the mindset that there are eight groups of universal emotions.

Can we prove emotions exist?

Emotions are observable in the mind and the body, so with them being visible, they obviously exist and aren’t a construction of the mind, and considering emotions are involuntary and are difficult to control, their effects are noticeable. If someone is sad, they will shown it in their face, and body language. They sometimes have a lack of attention, or concentration, and can struggle with every day tasks, like personal hygiene, or coping with personal relationships. Love can overwhelm some people as they don’t wish to be apart from the one they love, and they miss not being in their company. Love can make people over protective, or jealous, or not think straight as their mind is consumed by the one they love. If there’s a separation that’s one sided, the one who’s still in love will feel like they. Ant cool without their partner, and they’ll have a sense of loneliness and feel worthless. These feelings make a physical impact, as well as mentally, and can cloud a person’s judgement.

With emotions being controlled by the brain, the brain will change its activity. For decades, neurologists have been using volunteers and placing them in situations that can effect their emotions and studying the brain activity. In 1872, ‘Charles Darwin‘ published ‘The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals‘, and claimed that emotions have a universal character, and evolutionary history, and every human, regardless of race, religion, sex, or gender have similar behaviours. He expressed that all sentient being experienced emotions, and having four dogs I can testify that this is indeed correct. Their emotions aren’t as complex as humans as they don’t understand the concept of the world around them, but they express happiness, fear, excitement and the need for cuddles and kisses. Darwin was involved with several researchers hiked the was writing his book, and one was ‪French physician ‘Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne‬’. He applied electricity to people’s faces to stimulate the muscles to attempt to imitate facial expressions that were relative to emotions, and this was an area that Darwin was interested in as he believed that expressions were an important factor in the study of emotions.

Scientists have been using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain activity when a person suffers an emotion, and they claim that the brain has shown to give off neural signatures that have been shared by different subjects who have been studied.

“Despite manifest differences between people’s psychology, different people tend to neurally encode emotions in remarkably similar ways” – Amanda Markey

By using highly sophisticated computers, they were able to map out areas of the brain that were triggered when the subjects were stimulated into an emotional state. Modern psychiatrists, and neurologists are on the brink of being able to scan brains to seek out a problem, rather than self analysis which isn’t a completely reliable science.

Roaring twenties: prohibition, suffrage and the Ku Klux Klan

THE ROARING TWENTIES

The ‘United States of America‘ entered the roaring twenties with full on enthusiasm as to what the new world would give them, with people moving to key cities, like Chicago and New York, jazz music, fashion, Art Deco, and technology blossomed. People began buying cars as the credit options made it more affordable for the average person. The overall wealth of the nation doubled, more people owned appliances and telephones, with sport and cinema becoming big businesses.

The American economy and industrial sectors were booming, and America was divided by wealth. Many people were living lavish lifestyles, whilst others were living in dire poverty, and even though it was getting close to 50 years since slavery was abolished, many African Americans in the Deep South suffered horrendous racial prejudice and lived barely surviving as they didn’t have equal rights to whites. Although the birth of jazz and the rise of blues brought many African Americans into the cities to perform and started the Harlem Renaissance, in return millions of American whites joined the Ku Klux Klan as they believed they were combating the debauchery of society with Christian values.

THE PROHIBITION

Imagine a time when alcohol was illegal to go into production, transportation, and importation for 13 years between 1920 and 1933, but consuming it wasn’t a crime. As you’d expect, religion was behind it, and Lutheranism had attempted several times since the 19th century to remove alcohol from society as it went against their Christian beliefs, and America’s involvement in World War I created a national pride and opposition to the German beer producers, and it paved the way to diminish the influence in the alcohol trade, and the 18th amendment was voted in by a majority. On January 16th, 1920, the Volstead Act went into force and closed every establishment that sold liquor in America. The main reason was alcohol being the primary factor for most social disruption, marriage breakups and violence in America, and this gave women a voice that was heard.

“After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.” – Amendment XVIII

Bootleggers took advantage of the prohibition and made illegal gin and moonshine, but often it was created using industrial strength alcohol which led to many deaths to those desperate enough to drink it. Little did the Christians who campaigned against the immorality of selling alcohol know that the prohibition would backfire and give rise to mobsters, and none were as notorious as Al Capone, who ruled the Chicago underworld and made a fortune from casinos, speakeasies (secret bars) and racketeering.

The issue that the American government faced during the prohibition was enforcing it. Underground bars appeared everywhere, and police officers, lawyers and judges could be found drinking there. The government only had around 1500 agents to cover all of the states so a lot of the drinking continued unnoticed, and certain cities completely disregarded it and became anti-prohibition. The President at the time of 1933, Franklin Roosevelt, was inaugurated at a time of the Great Depression and low morale from American citizens and he signed the 21st amendment.

“The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. … The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.” – Amendment XXI

WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE

1840 was the time when women began the fight to change the law so that they were eligible to vote, and in 1890 the separate suffrage organisations finally joined forces as one and became the ‘National American Woman Suffrage Association‘. The movement tirelessly campaigned for the constitution to pass an amendment for the right for women to vote, and the fight for women’s suffrage came to an end by the passing of the 19th amendment in August 18, 1920. It was 80 years in the making.

“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.” – Amendment XIX

America was in a strange place. Racism was very strong, yet in 1870 the 15th Amendment was passed allowing African American men the right to vote, yet no woman was able until 50 years later as the American man saw the woman as a homemaker.

‪The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” – Amendment XV‬

KNIGHTS OF THE KU KLUX KLAN

In the early 1920s America grew suspicious of foreigners, and their paranoia over communism began, and throughout the land, and predominantly rural America the ‘Knights of the Ku Klux Klan‘ grew in a second wave after being dormant for almost 50 years and awoken by ‘Rev. William J. Simmons‘ who recruited over 5,000,000 members and millions more supporters, due to their racist, anti-Semitic, and anti-Catholic views. America was becoming dangerous for anyone who wasn’t a white supremacist. Their influence over state governments and politics was huge, and they took control of many cities’ police departments and court houses.

Considering the Klan was claiming to be enforcing Christian values, they actively encouraged their members that bigotry, prejudice, harassment, condemnation and violence was not only patriotic but it’s God’s will. The white Anglo-Saxon Protestants were becoming anxious about the state of America. Foreigners from Europe were invading their lands, the blacks were spreading, women were gaining rights and they saw this as America being undone, and they resented the modernism that their country was going through. They were strongly opposed to contraception, abortion and evolution being taught in schools, and this led to much vigilante violence. As the Klan grew they helped charity organisations and supported schools, and donated much money to the churches to support the poor Protestants, but at the same time their influence went to the top as Klan members became mayors, governors and senators. Some members of the Klan were not interested in violence as they just wished moral values to return, but others joined so that they could beat and lynch blacks, Catholics, foreigners, adulterers and promiscuous women.

Despite the Klan’s popularity in the mid twenties, the Presidents saw them as a sadistic organisation who was a danger to the public, and many higher ranking public officials began to turn their backs on Klan members and activities. Many people began to publicly oppose them as the death toll, raping, and violence was contradicting their alleged moral outlook. The Klan slowly diminished as social outlook towards minorities became more tolerant, but it begs the question of how and why did America accept the Ku Klux Klan as social and cultural figureheads when they promoted so much hatred?

“H e and other Klan leaders would look to Christianity to find support for racism. Even liberal Protestant churches supported white supremacy. That seemed the natural order of things. Just as people used Biblical texts to support slavery.” – Kelly J. Baker

Animal Symbolism and Zoolatry

Humans have had relationships with animals for thousands of years, be it cattle, horses or domesticated animals like dogs and cats. Some religions hold certain animals in high esteem, and others see all sentient life as being important, especially religions, and philosophies that believe you’ll gain enlightenment through reincarnation.

BUDDHISM

In Buddhism all animals are classified as sentient life, and are eligible for enlightenment, and any animal could potentially be a reincarnation of a family member or a loved one, so they are seen in high regard, and this is one of the reason why many Buddhists prefer to live as vegetarians. They believe that morality is indistinguishable between the treatment of humans and animals and we are connected. In Buddhism they have something known as the Five precepts, which is essentially their version of the Ten Commandments, and the first precept is not to take any life, animal, insect, bird, fish or human.

• to refrain from taking life, ie killing any living creature

• to refrain from taking what is not freely given

• to refrain from misuse of the senses or sexual misconduct

• to refrain from wrong speech

• to refrain from intoxicants that cloud the mind

‘Siddhārtha Gautama‘, or as he’s commonly known, Buddha, claimed that all sentient life contained Buddha nature, and due to the continuous rebirths throughout time, every animal has been a person at some point. Buddhism’s sister religions, Hinduism and Jainism share a similar belief system which is about reaching a truer level of reality through enlightenment. Buddha said in the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, that the eating of meat isn’t permitted under any circumstance, but some people who follow Buddhism claim that buying food at a supermarket, or restaurant hasn’t been killed for them, so it’s permissible.

“In every country in the world, killing human beings is condemned. The Buddhist precept of non-killing extends even further, to include all living beings.” – Monk Thich Nhat Hanh

HINDUISM

Hindus see all life as having equal spiritual power, and in Hindu scripture many stories are about animals who are classed as divine. Hindus, like Buddhists believe in reincarnation, and karma, and with the belief in karma comes dying and being born as an animal if you repeatedly make the same mistakes. Ahimsa is the principle of respecting the rights of animals and see that no harm comes to them. They also believe that humanity should always try to create an equilibrium with the world they live in, and living unselfishly is expected. The cow is the sacred animal in Hinduism and it’s seen as a symbol of life and Earth, and is heavily respected as it’s used widely in farm work. They believe that humans weren’t put on Earth to dominate other species, which is in direct opposition to Christianity as god promotes dominionism in Genesis.

“No person should kill animals helpful to all. Rather, by serving them, one should attain happiness.” – Yajur Veda

SIKHISM

Whilst Sikhs don’t worship animals, they believe in reincarnation also, and believe god put all life on Earth for a purpose, so animal cruelty is forbidden. They believe that bodies are clothes for the soul, and we can enjoy life as human or animals before we are released from reincarnation to live with god. Even though they respect all life, Sikhs only believe that humans can break away from reincarnation, as we have morals whereas animals rely on instincts. Sikhs believe that if they are to eat meat, the animal must be slaughtered immediately so that the animal experiences little to no suffering, so because of this they are forbidden to eat kosher or halal meat from ritual slaughtering. Because of this many Sikhs actively choose to be vegetarians to preserve life.

“In so many incarnations, you were a worm and an insect in so many incarnations, you were an elephant, a fish and a deer In so many incarnations, you were a bird and a snake In so many incarnations, you were yoked as an ox and a horse Meet the Lord of the Universe – now is the time to meet Him After so very long, this human body was fashioned for you.” – Guru Granth Sahib ji

ANCIENT EGYPT

Zoolatry, which is the worship of animals was extremely prevalent in Ancient Egypt, and as well as being seen as idols, the majority of households had pets ranging from domestic, to more extravagant like Lions, Tigers, Elephants and Crocodiles. And 1 in 4 hieroglyphs discovered feature animals of one description or another. Many of the gods were either depicted as animals, or at least had an animals head on a human body. The Egyptians were mystified by the seemingly magical abilities that certain animals had; be it flight, heightened awareness, stealth, agility and hunting abilities. They didn’t see the animals as gods themselves, but believed they were the means that the gods could manifest themselves. Mummified remains of animals have been discovered in tombs, where they’ve been left with much wealth which was a gift to the gods, and in ‪Beni Hassan there’s a tomb with an estimated 80,000 feline burials.‬

‪”You are the Great Cat, the avenger of the gods, and the judge of words, and the president of the sovereign chiefs and the governor of the holy Circle; you are indeed the Great Cat.” – Valley of the kings inscription ‬

TAOISM

Taoism, or Daoism, is a religious philosophical Chinese tradition and originated from the School of Yin-yang. Yin-Yang are opposites; Yin is female, and Yang is male; female is darkness; male is lightness; female is absorption, male is penetration. The school of shin-Yang also studies the Five Elements (water, fire, wood, metal, and earth). The Tao is the single principle that controls the universe, and it’s separated into two opposite principles of Yin and Yang, and they accomplish changes in the universe through the Five Elements. The Chinese Zodiac originated from studies by Taoist priests who nominated twelve animals for a twelve-year cycle. The yellow Emperor, or Emperor Huang Ti created the Chinese lunar calendar in 2637 BCE, and this paved the way for the Chinese Zodiac.

Yang: (1) Rat, (3) Tiger, (5) Dragon, (7) Horse, (9) Monkey, (11) Dog

Yin: (2) Ox, (4) Rabbit, (6) Snake, (8) Sheep, (10) Rooster, (12) Pig

A retrospective: Malcolm X

Malcolm X‘ was born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, and spent his youth growing up in multiple foster homes. At age 19 he was sentenced to prison for burglary/breaking and entering, and in prison he discovered Islam, and he joined the political group, Nation of Islam (NOI) where he changed his name and publicly he became Malcolm X. Elijah Muhammad, who was the leader of the NOI became Malcolm’s mentor after he left prison in 1952.

“You can’t separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless he has his freedom.” – Malcolm X

Elijah Muhammad preached his own version of Islam where he claimed that whites were inferior, and blacks being the original humans should take back what’s theirs. Of course he gained much sympathy and allegiance as he targeted young black men who were oppressed, who were often Christian who he successfully converted to Islam. The Nation of Islam combined Islam with black nationalism and this ideology appealed to Malcolm, after his brother, Reginald, who was also in prison with him converted. Upon release from prison he created a newspaper for the Nation of Islam called Muhammad Speaks, and every member of the movement was obligated to sell a fixed amount after publication. Malcolm quickly rose through the ranks and became minister at the Temple No. 7 in Harlem, and Elijah Muhammad made him National Representative of the Nation of Islam, his second in command.

“I’m for truth, no matter who tells it. I’m for justice, no matter who it is for or against. I’m a human being, first and foremost, and as such I’m for whoever and whatever benefits humanity as a whole.” – Malcolm X

He tirelessly worked to recruit and gain notoriety in his battle against racial hatred and the civil rights movement, and this involved him preaching on the streets of Harlem, and giving public speeches wherever he could. Whilst both him and Martin Luther King Jr. had the same objectives, they were extremely critical of each other’s methods. It was partly due to Malcolm’s pride and persistence that the terms coloured and negro were replaced by African American, or black, as he formed the foundations of black power, and black consciousness.

“The future belongs to those who prepare for it today.” – Malcolm X

His relationship with the Nation of Islam became sour, and his relationship with Elijah diminished because of separating views, and he announced his separation in 1964, but remained a Muslim. He founded the Muslim Mosque, Inc. and went on a pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are required to do at least once in their lives, and he changed his name to el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz.

“I believe in human beings, and that all human beings should be respected as such, regardless of their color.” – Malcolm X

In February 1965 he held a rally in New York that’s aim was to unite others for the human rights movement. As he began his speech in front of the small crowd in Audubon Ballroom in Harlem, a man stepped forward brandishing a Sawn-off shotgun and shot Malcolm in the chest. He was then shot another 14 times by other assailants representing the Nation of Islam. His death led to the prominent Black Power movement.