The Golden Rule has been adhered to for thousands of years, and has been adopted by many religions and philosophies, and became widespread amongst philosophers of Ancient Greece, but like most ideologies, it’s been hijacked by Abrahamic faiths, and they believe they have the monopoly on ethics and morality. It’s origin is said to go as far back as Middle Kingdom Egyptian scholars; some 2000 years BCE. The most common version known to modern society is “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” , and is promoted by modern Christianity as words of Jesus, but it was used in the Far East hundreds of years prior by Buddha and Confucius. The Golden rule is all about the use of empathy, and knowing how you’d feel if someone wronged you, and if you wish to be treated with respect, then the respect should be reciprocated, and if you wish I’ll on others, then be prepared to have ill wished upon you.
“Do not do to others what angers you if done to you by others.” – Socrates
People of Abrahamic faiths constantly criticise pagan, or non-believers by claiming that without a god, they have no moral guidelines, and everything is unaccountable, as we have no higher authority, and because of this misconception, they are morally bankrupt. But if a theist, and an atheist, both adopt the golden rule, and treat others with dignity and respect, then how are their moral codes any different? Just because someone worships a god means they are going to be the Good Samaritan, and just because someone doesn’t worship a god doesn’t mean they’re incapable of being the Good Samaritan.
“In happiness and suffering, in joy and grief, we should regard all creatures as we regard our own self.” – Mahavira
However, there is a flaw by adopting the golden rule, and it’s the assumption that another person wishes to be treated as you do, or someone treats you in a way they think is acceptable but you don’t. Do you feel obliged to ask every person that you encounter what their preferences are in relation to how they wish to be treated? Be it only a slight flaw, it’s a flaw nevertheless, but as long as you adopt the foundations of morality, which is empathy, then compassion, humility, understanding and respect become second nature. The golden rule has come under criticism as it doesn’t outline a code of conduct, but do we really need to have a list of requirements on how to behave ethically?
“In nearly every religion I am aware of, there is a variation of the golden rule. And even for the non-religious, it is a tenet of people who believe in humanistic principles.” – Hillary Clinton
For me, this is an easy question to answer, and it’s a resounding no, but in a way I can understand why ignorant people can mistake it for one, especially if they think that atheism is a religion. Disingenuous people like Ken Ham either ignorantly link it to what he calls secularistatheism, which he claims is a religion, or he says it to cause intentional provocation. Humanism is a way of life with a set of principles that most humanists agree on, but that’s where its comparison to religion ends.
Humanism has several key focuses, and some of them are extremely frowned upon by religious groups as it goes against their personal beliefs and their religious texts. Humanism is an area of philosophy that focuses on the importance of humanityindividually and collectively, and the value of sentient life. They accept that this life is the only one we have and it’s our job to live it morally and respectfully, and knowing that we live in a reality of naturalism, there’s no need for superstitious beliefs as we are solely in charge of our own destinies. There’s no life mapped out for us, so it’s our choice to make decisions that are ethical, and try to preserve the well being and happiness of those around us.
“It’s a strange myth that atheists have nothing to live for. It’s the opposite. We have nothing to die for. We have everything to live for” – Ricky Gervais
The key elements of humanism is using logic and reason, and to gain knowledge through evidence as opposed to belief or faith. The only way to gain true knowledge is through the scientificmethod, and strict scepticism. It’s also about defining morality as maximisinghappiness, and minimisingsuffering whenever possible by using compassion and empathy rather than fulfilling the will of an egotistic god who demands to be obeyed. Doing as you’re told to please a master is not a moral action, and it really baffles me as to how theists believe a god gives them moral superiority, when in truth, there is NO morality in god fearing religions.
“A non-religious philosophy, based on liberal human values.”
– Little Oxford Dictionary
I’ve been a member of Humanists UK for a little over a year, and the reason I decided to join, and pay a monthly subscription is because of its charitystatus and the campaigns it tirelessly fights for. One of the things I feel most strongly about is human rights and equality; be it gender, sexuality, physically,mentally or racially. Everyone has a voice that deserves to be heard and respected. Despite this, I still find it extremely hard to stay civil with religiouszealots, but I’d always fight for their freedom of religion, but I’m just as entitled to my freedom from religion.
Where I live in England is not a very religious area at all, and no one I know attends church. The churches before the COVID 19 pandemic lock down were trying any methods to encourage people through the doors, ie fitness classes. But this doesn’t mean for one second that my country hasn’t got a relationship between the government and the church. The Church of England, who’s leader is Queen Elizabeth II, is England’s state religion, and because of this bishops get automatic seats in the House of Lords, but no other faith has these rights. This is why Humanists UK is campaigning for disestablishmentarianism which is to remove religious influence from the government.
A few of the public ethical campaigns are confusing to theists, or they simply cannot accept them because their religion frowns upon them. These include assisted dying,abortion rights, genital mutilation, and enforcing schools to adopt sexual education and making mandatory.
Abortion is a pro-choice stance with humanists, and it’s not about the murdering of babies, or a form of contraception, it’s about a woman having the right to terminate for a number of reasons that include rape victims, or serious health concerns relating to the unborn baby or the mother. This is where sexual education is important to teach children that contraception is important, and no one is required to have sexual interaction if they don’t want to. As well as sexual education, humanists require schools to teach children what homosexuality is and you don’t have to be ashamed of your sexuality, and it’s not about perverting society and turning people gay like some Christians think.
Assisted dying is another important issue that extremely sick humans are denied the right to die with honour and dignity, and anyone who helps a loved one pass away can potentially face criminal action and possibly prison. Why should someone who’s suffering, has no quality of life and just wishes to leave be denied the right for painless euthanasia? If an animal is sick and suffering a vet will euthanise them to end their suffering, so why have animals got the right, but not humans. The religious argument that god gave you life, and he decides when to take it away is sheer madness and unacceptable.
Another campaign I feel strong about is animal welfare, and this ranges from treatment to unethical religious slaughter, that is usually carried out without stunning, or sedation, and involves a sharp blade cutting the throat and the animal bleeding out until death. Whilst a larger number of Halal slaughters are using stunning techniques, Kosher does not, and the animal dies slowly whilst being in a fully conscious state. Humanists UK fully supports the ‘Five Freedoms’ which are listed below.
As we know, atheism is the rejection of Gods, and deities, and despite the term only really being in circulation for around 500 years, there have always been people, cultures and religions that don’t accept the idea of deities. Atheism is derived from the etymologicalGreek root word (atheos – ἄθεος), which in its literal sense means ‘without gods’. In ancient times atheists had to move in clandestine circles, as many societies punished atheists by imprisonments, or even death. Early feminists who fought for suffrage were openly atheist as they believed that religion held back the rights of women, liberty and essential basic human rights like anti-slavery. Religion has always seen atheism as a threat, and none more so than Christians who are of the belief that a world without God is a world of corruption and sin, and without Christian values to guide you, then you’re morally bankrupt. Yet many atheists have become humanists as they’ve studied its philosophy and realised that it’s about the greater good, for everyone, not just non-believers. Humanism is about freedom of religion, but also freedom from religion, in its support of secularism. No one knows the true number of atheists in this world as unfortunately it has a stigma attached to it, and many people, in many cultures are simply too afraid to announce their atheism for risks of losing their family, their job, their friends and the respect of people they care about.
Theists will vehemently argue that man was created to believe in gods. That’s their purpose in life, and the majority are stubborn in their convictions, yet for several millennia academics have debated whether gods can exist, and whether they can provide morality and an ethical life. Archaic Greece was a notorious place for the birth of the freethinker even though they lived in a polytheistic society. Philosophy was an important part of their culture and the basis of philosophy is to question everything, so of course religion was heavily debated. Many people, including educated scholars are adamant that atheism is a modern idea that came about in the European Enlightenment, but this is simply not true. With the birth of modern science, and academics beginning to understand the world around them, atheism, at least for a while, grew rapidly as people rejected the idea that religion was a natural state of the human mind.
“Men create gods after their own image, not only with regard to their form but with regard to their mode of life.“- Aristotle
One of the most outspoken sceptics in BCE Greece was ‘Carneades‘, who was the leader of the Platonic academy in Athens. He was adamant that belief in gods was illogical and rejected all dogmatic doctrines, and ‘Protagoras‘ claimed that ‘what cannot be perceived cannot exist’, and the Sceptics (skepsis) which is the Greek word for investigation, claimed that ‘beliefs rest on shaky foundations’
“When I look upon priests, prophets, and interpreters of dreams, nothing is so contemptible as a man.” – Diogenes
As well as the schools of thought thatinclude the Cynics and the Sceptics, the Sophists (sophistēs)who were a collection of professional teachers, were openly critical about religion, law and ethics. As a whole they were secular atheists who were openly critical ofbeliefs and traditions, and were extremely skilled at arguing their case. ‘Socrates‘, who was linked to the Sophists through his good friend ‘Chaerephon‘, was put on trial and chargedwithcorruption of the young, and impiety, as he refused to believe in the gods of Greece. He was sentenced to death and was forced to drink hemlock, but this does not imply that Socrates was an atheist, but he was certainly brave enough to go againstthe status quo. ‘Prodicus‘, however, who was a good friend of Socrates was a fully fledged atheist, who promoted the philosophy of naturalism, and he claimed that man was so primitivethat he had to invent gods so he had someone to thank for the goods nature provides. ‘Critias‘ had a different viewpoint altogether, and he was of theopinionthat religious faith was a powerful political tool that leaders can use to maintaindiscipline from their subjects.
In Ancient Greecethewordἄθεοιinitiallybegan as a derogatory slur to describe someone who didn’t believe in someone’s god, or deity. The Romans who persecuted early Christians for not accepting their polytheism would have been described as being ἄθεοι. In Ancient Greece and Rome, you had to show respect to the gods, and if you were critical or held contempt it was wise to keep your thoughts to yourself to minimise the risk of being charged with impiety, but in spite of this expectancy of respect, atheism wasn’t outlawed, and people were able to believe, or disbelieve in what they wanted. It was only after the polytheistic views died away, and paganism became a target for Christian assimilation, that it became much more difficult to be an atheist through fear of being executed after being charged with heresy. Atheism, in a sense went underground for over a thousand years after the fall of the Roman Empire.
THE DARK AGES
“There was a time when religion ruled the world. It is known as the Dark Ages.” – Ruth Hurmence Green
The reason it’s often referred to as the Dark Ages was because religion had a stranglehold over Europe, and there’s was a distinct lack of cultural, scientific and social development. The Dark Ages lasted until the ‘Age of Discovery‘ and the beginning of the ‘Italian Renaissance‘, where Renaissance humanism started, which once again brought about the discussion of moral philosophy not being exclusive to religions, like Greek philosophers discussed as far back as 2000 years prior. Throughout the Dark Ages, or Middle Ages if you prefer, there was no escape from Christianity, as it dominated every area of a person’s life. It had a foothold within governments and monarchies, schools were run by servants of god, and from the womb, until the grave, life was smothered by Christian doctrine. If someone was brave enough to announce their atheism, they’d get no support, as everyone was brainwashed to obey the church.
“Unbelief is the greatest of sins.” – Thomas Aquinas
There were many cases of people being charged with heresy and blasphemy, and much of the medieval unbelief stemmed from the common man being treated unfairly by the church and being of the opinion that God was being used to manipulate them, and justify the actions of the churches. It was expected that you believed, and obeyed God, and if you dared to rebel, you would more than likely face dire consequences.
“Those are not at all to be tolerated who deny the beingofGod. Promises, covenants, and oaths, which are the bondsofhuman society, can have no hold upon anatheist. The taking awayofGod, though but even in thought, dissolves all.” – John Locke
“A fear of atheists is also unwarranted given the cowardly nature of most atheists and their inability to intellectually justify their denial of the existence of God” – Conservapedia
As you can see from the above quote from the extremely biased, and judgemental website, Conservapedia that atheophobia is unwarranted, but mocking is perfectly acceptable, and their website mocks atheism at every opportunity, which is fine, as it’s only words from foolish people. Yet, atheophobia, or simply the hatred of heathens has been rife as long as atheists have been open about their disbelief. There are some vicious stories of atrocious acts that Christians have committed against atheists over the years, and I will share a few.
‘Lucilio Vanini‘ was an Italian philosopher and freethinker, who lived at the end of the 16th century, and the start of the 17th. He was one of the first people to suggest that humans and apes share a common ancestor, and in his second book, ‘De Admirandis Naturae Reginae Deaeque Mortalium Arcanis‘, he declared his atheism. He was arrested in Toulouse in 1619, trialed and sentenced to death. This involved having his tongue cut out, being strangled to death, then burned.
‘DomenicoScandella‘ was also Italian, and he lived in the 16th century. He was particularly outspoken about his atheism after studying several books on theology, and living during the Catholic inquisitions, he didn’t go unnoticed, and was eventually arrested and considered a heresiarch. Even at his trial he disputed that Jesus couldn’t have been born from a virgin mother, and he didn’t die to redeem us all. He was executed by being burned at the stake.
‘Casimir Liszinksi‘ was Polish, and lived in the 17th century. He was a philosopher who had studied as a Jesuit, but decided that it was illogical and declared his atheism through a paper he published. He was arrested, trialed, and charged with being a heresiarch, and the punishment was execution. This involved a burning iron forced into the mouth, his hands were burned slowly, and then his whole body was set alight. After he was pronounced dead, his tongue was ripped out and he was beheaded.
There are many more examples of why it’s been dangerous throughout the ages to admit atheism, and the reason there is much less evidence of atheistic movements than theistic movements throughout history is because history is always written by the victors, and many atheistic books have been systematically destroyed.
“Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord. . . . And the founder of Christianity made no secret indeed of his estimation of the Jewish people. When He found it necessary, He drove those enemies of the human race out of the Temple of God.” – Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf
In 1933, the Nazi party in Germany began to rise into power, and at the time the majority of Germany was Christian with a mixture of Protestantism and Catholicism, and a small fraction, of minority faiths, like Jewish, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Baháʼí were outlawed, as well as most paganism, astrology, witchcraft and the occult. The Nazi party were all followers of some form of Christianity, and saw any deviation from that as heresy, and this included atheism. Adolf Hitler, with the help of his advisors attempted to unite all the German churches, and create one German Evangelical Church. Hitler banned atheistic and freethinking ideology, and the Gestapo, his secret police persecuted them. He also closed down the German Freethinkers League, (which was in direct opposition to the German Orthodox Church), who had half a million atheist members. Later that year, Hitler gave a speech addressing the German public that he had officially stamped out atheism in their country.
”I have not tolerated an atheist in the ranks of the SS. Every member has a deep faith in God, in what my ancestors called in their language Waralda, the ancient one, the one who is mightier than we are” – Heinrich Himmler
In Islamic states, atheism can be treated most severely, and even though it’s 2020, and we are allegedly in a civilised era, it can still be punishable by death in 15 Muslim nations. Denying Islam, if born a Muslim gives you apostate status, and can be punishable by death for men, and imprisonment for women. Whilst this isn’t always the case, it’s still a punishment that countries who adopt Sharia Law believe is their right, and they claim that being opposed to a Islam, and Allah is blasphemy, and blasphemers will not be forgiven. The countries in question include Egypt, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Libya, Pakistan, Qatar, Nigeria, Somalia, Afghanistan, Malaysia, Brunei, Maldives, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. In Iran, atheists aren’t given legal status, or legal rights, and in 1965, in Indonesia, the army committed mass genocide against atheists, or anyone accused of atheism, and Saudi Arabia view atheism as a form of terrorism.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
In America some states deny an atheist the opportunity to run for public office, or even be part of a jury, and the Boy Scouts of America doesn’t allow atheists members or officials. This is because of America’s general distrust of atheists, and because they have no divine authority to answer to, they are ethically and morally bankrupt. The Freedom of Religion Foundation (FFRF) claim that religion, as in Christianity, has too much influence over the government. There have been surveys conducted throughout America about atheists running for public office, and an average of 50% of Americans would not vote for them, and as a rule, people in public office tend not to declare atheism due to the risk of career Kamikaze. Many Americans are of the opinion that an atheist politician cannot serve his nation as honestly as a Christian, as Christians behave much better when they feel God is watching them.
America has quite a large humanist population, and despite not gaining their morals from some higher power, they’re keen to put humanity as prime importance over folklore and superstition. Despite the importance of humanity in the minds of humanists, Christians still hold much antipathy towards them. Humanism focuses on liberty and philanthropy, and Sir Francis Bacon associated it with a ‘love of humanity‘. In 1933 theHumanist Manifesto was published in Chicago, America, and it was in support of socialjustice, and forscience and reason to be the foundation of ethics, preferably not religious dogma. They weren’t in direct oppositionto Christianity, they were just offering another philosophy of life. In 1941 the American Humanists Association was formed, with the aim of promotingsecularism and social activism across America.
“I am a humanist, which means, in part, that I have tried to behave decently without expectations of rewards or punishments after I am dead.” – Kurt Vonnegut
ATHEISM ON THE RISE
It has been estimated by historians that people who identify as irreligious, or atheists potentially exceed half a billion people world wide, which is roughly just under 6% of the world population, which in itself doesn’t sound like a large amount, but if atheism was classified as a religious group, it would be thefourth largest behind a Hinduism, Islam and Christianity. Atheism is hardly a trivial matter, so why has religion maintained its intolerance towards it? One of the reasons I’ve already stated, is distrust, but it’s much more thanthat. Many theists are of the belief that atheists have a hedonisticlifestyle, are more likely to suffer from depression, and aren’table to maintainfidelity with partners. They also maintain the beliefthatatheists are unableto raise their siblings to become upstanding citizens, that atheism is the cause of autism, or makes people nihilistic as they think without a spiritualoutlook an atheists’ life has no meaning or purpose. Alsoanatheist rejects God because their ego won’t allow them to accept thatthere’s a powergreater than them. I’msureyou’llagreethat this is all speculation, and misguided assumptions.Atheists are unique from each other as they have no culture, no doctrines, and no dogma. They have no formalities, dress codes, prayer rituals or worship.
Many antiatheists object to naturalism, and cannot comprehend how anyone can accept that perhaps life and the universe around us actually did happen by chance, rather than being created. This is why the atheist’s association with science, or the ‘religion of scientism‘ as I’ve heard it called, is often one of the first objections that theists bring to the table. Their distaste of ‘Darwin’s theory of evolution’ literally gets their blood to boiling point, as how is evolution possible without the hand of God? Because many atheists embrace science, as do many theists, they see science as the enemy. Some of the greatest minds to have been involved with science have had religious faith, but by being true to themselves, and true to their field of science, they’ve managed to keep their faith and their studies separate. Yet many creationists, and apologists see science as an attempt to remove God.
“The more a nation gets into darkness, the more it’s going to hate the light. The more it’s going to run from the light. And we have a generation of people who have given themselves to darkness, and they’ve embraced atheism, because it gets them away from moral responsibility to God.” – Ray Comfort
We are primates, of the great ape collective, and we are cousins to chimpanzees and bonobos. This is an indisputable fact, but many theists find it amusing to call atheists apes as though it’s an insult, or refer to atheists as nothing but animals, when that’s exactly what we are. The thing they often fail to realise is that many animals, especially other species of apes live in social groups, that require them to cooperate to survive. They have no concept of gods, yet they still form hierarchies and care for their young. Humans, despite being in more complicated social groups work the same way as their cousins, and because atheists accept this, and don’t as a rule see us as a special and superior species, theists hold contempt and reject atheists from their society.