A retrospective: Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant‘ was born in Königsberg, Prussia, a region of Germany, in 1724. He grew up to become one of the most influential philosophers surrounding epistemology during the Age of Enlightenment. As philosophers go, Kant was the real deal, and followed in the footsteps of ‘Sir Francis Bacon‘, who 200 years previous had focused on rationalism, the pursuit of reason, and empiricism which involves knowledge that’s gained through experiences of the senses. He was born and raised as a Lutheran, and started at the local Pietist, Latin school aged 8 where he remained a student until he was 16, and he then enrolled at the University of Königsberg, where he studied theology. It was here that he discovered his love of physics, and he began reading the works of the most notorious scientists and philosophers of the past.

“It is beyond a doubt that all our knowledge begins with experience.” – Immanuel Kant

One of Kant’s areas which he began to study was metaphysics, which is theoretical philosophy that focuses on cause and effect; the cause of the universe and the nature of being. In other words it studies how and why, and a perfect example is the question; Divine Creation, or the Big Bang? The second of Kant’s areas was the study of ethics which began with his Pietist faith. He believed that morality comes about by using extensive reasoning, and this led him towards political ethics where he claimed democracy and liberty would lead to world peace. Despite being raised as a Pietist, and adhering to the ethics of his faith, he became sceptical towards arguments defending theism, and some historians claim he was an agnostic, and others say he developed atheistic views. I think it’s fair to say that his spirituality was an ever developing idea, and when applying reason, he struggled with the concept of god.

“All our knowledge begins with the senses, proceeds then to the understanding, and ends with reason. There is nothing higher than reason.” – Immanuel Kant

As a scientist and philosopher he turned the world upside down with his theories and ideas regarding cosmology, ethics, politics, geology and physics. He was a thought machine, and many of his theories despite being disregarded in certain circles during his life, have stood the test of time and his influence on modern science has been monumental.

He proposed the nebular hypothesis which is the theory that the solar system was formed 4.5 billion years ago by a nebula cloud containing dust and gas. As it became denser, gravity formed objects of mass which include the planets and the sun, and they began to rotate. Kant claimed that the evidence for this was the fact that all the natural satellites in the solar system (planets and moons) all orbit around the Sun in the same direction, and because over 99% of the mass in the solar system is the Sun, it attracts all the other objects of mass. The gravity of the Sun condensed until it reached a critical point and the hydrogen atoms fused to create helium, and nuclear fusion began with the Sun coming to life. He proposed that galaxies formed in a similar way, and each galaxy had an infinite amount of solar systems that formed by gravity interaction.

As a moral philosopher he never encouraged any theism in his approach, and he deals with something he described as ‘fact of reason’. What this implied was every human has been endowed with a conscience, and with this comes empathy and reason, and without freedom we have no moral worth, but he also dismissed the idea of free will and believed in the theory of causality proposed by ‘Isaac Newton‘. In other words, morality is derived from consequence, and we must always endeavour to respect humanity in ourselves, and once that’s achieved we will understand our intrinsic moral duty. He separated the idea of morality into two distinctions.

Theoretical reason is studying the natural world through understanding why

Practical reason studies the questions of how the world ought to be and tells us our duty

As well as personal ethics, he had a deep interest in political ethics which involved an honest government and civil rights. In a way he was an idealist and believed that human were inevitably going to reach a state of perpetual happiness, but there must be reform. This he believed would come from a Rechtsstaat, which essentially means ‘rule of law, or state of justice‘, which is a form of constitutionalism. As well as wishing for universal peace, he claimed that wars lead to economic turmoil, and the more expensive wars become, the more reluctant that nations will wish to get involved, which will eventually lead to conditions of peace, which encourages morality.

Have the courage to use your own reason- That is the motto of enlightenment.” -Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals

Regarding Kant’s cause and effect ideas; every action has a reaction, he also studied autonomy and its influences, like universality and particularity, objectivity and subjectivity, conformity and individuality, and what impact they have on decision making, and especially in regards to morality. He defined autonomy into three categories that are:

The right to make decisions without outside influence

The right to make decision independently using personal reflection and reason

The right to be accepted by others that morality is universal and what is required by you, is required by all

“Autonomy, in Western ethics and political philosophy, the state or condition of self-governance, or leading one’s life according to reasons, values, or desires that are authentically one’s own.” – Source

Kant’s ethical ideology is known as Kantian ethics, or deontological ethics, means ethical duty. This involves something that Kant coined as ‘Good Will‘, which suggests that doing something that you consider good, doesn’t automatically make it good, it’s the attitude behind the action which is important. Take theism as a perfect example of why it cannot be categorised as good will. Once there’s a reward for doing a good deed, then the act of morality is cancelled, and according to Kantian ethics, you do a good deed because it’s your duty, not for merit. So good will and duty is what defines morality, not pleasing the will of a god, and once opposing inclinations outweighs rational incentive, the moral framework breaks down.

Georges Lemaître and the hypothesis of the primeval atom

Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître‘ was a Belgian priest born in the 19th century, and is evidence that despite being devoutly religious, you can believe in god and separate that belief from science and reality. As well as being a priest, he was a professor of physics at the Catholic University of Leuven, and a keen cosmologist. During World War I he served as an artillery officer in the Belgian army, and when the war ended he studied to become a priest and was ordained in 1923. Between 1925 and 1927 he studied solar physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in America and obtained his Ph.D, and where he studied the works of ‘Edwin Hubble‘, and his ‪theories surrounding an expanding universe, which he’d observed through an extremely powerful telescope at Mt. Wilson in California‬

Georges Lemaître 07/17/1894 – 06/20/1966

Upon his return to Belgium he proposed that due to the neighbouring galaxies moving away from us in different directions, then an obvious conclusion would be a massive cosmic force and he proposed the Big Bang theory using ‘Albert Einstein’s’ theory of general relativity that he published 11 years prior. Georges never actually referred to the cosmic event as the Big Bang as he named it ‘hypothesis of the primeval atom’. Albert Einstein disregarded George’s theory as nonsense, but in later life he considered it as one of the most important theories in science. of the primeval atom’. His theory was in simple terms that to explain why the universe was expanding, it must have had a point of origin where everything within the universe was packed within an object of infinite density. This object of infinite density is what he described as the primeval atom.

“The radius of space began at zero; the first stages of the expansion consisted of a rapid expansion determined by the mass of the initial atom, almost equal to the present mass of the universe. If this mass is sufficient, and the estimates which we can make indicate that this is indeed so, the initial expansion was able to permit the radius to exceed the value of the equilibrium radius. The expansion thus took place in three phases: a first period of rapid expansion in which the atom-universe was broken into atomic stars, a period of slowing-down, followed by a third period of accelerated expansion. It is doubtless in this third period that we find ourselves today, and the acceleration of space which followed the period of slow expansion could well be responsible for the separation of stars into extra-galactic nebulae.” – Georges Lemaître

‪Whilst Georges Lemaître was a devout believer, he was a scientist as heart, and he said that through religion and science he had two avenues to search for the truth, but they must always be kept separate. You can’t help but admire a religious person who rejects the idea of creationism and accepts that science is the answer to the birth of the universe. I read that he once said that if the theory of relativity was a creation of god, it would have been declared in the Bible. When he first published his theory, it received little attention, and it wasn’t until the prominent English astronomer ‘Arthur Eddington‘ had it translated and published in the ‘Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society‘ in 1931. It wasn’t until 18 years later that astronomer ‘Fred Hoyle’ mockingly called it the ‘Big Bang’ and that name stuck.‬

In 1929, ‘Edwin Hubble‘ proposed the Hubble constant, which is a theory that the further away galaxies are from Earth, the faster they are moving away, and this was originally known as Hubble’s law, but in 2018, scientists voted to rename it to ‘Hubble–Lemaître law‘, due to Georges Lemaître proposing it, and Hubble refining it.

A retrospective: Malcolm X

Malcolm X‘ was born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, and spent his youth growing up in multiple foster homes. At age 19 he was sentenced to prison for burglary/breaking and entering, and in prison he discovered Islam, and he joined the political group, Nation of Islam (NOI) where he changed his name and publicly he became Malcolm X. Elijah Muhammad, who was the leader of the NOI became Malcolm’s mentor after he left prison in 1952.

“You can’t separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless he has his freedom.” – Malcolm X

Elijah Muhammad preached his own version of Islam where he claimed that whites were inferior, and blacks being the original humans should take back what’s theirs. Of course he gained much sympathy and allegiance as he targeted young black men who were oppressed, who were often Christian who he successfully converted to Islam. The Nation of Islam combined Islam with black nationalism and this ideology appealed to Malcolm, after his brother, Reginald, who was also in prison with him converted. Upon release from prison he created a newspaper for the Nation of Islam called Muhammad Speaks, and every member of the movement was obligated to sell a fixed amount after publication. Malcolm quickly rose through the ranks and became minister at the Temple No. 7 in Harlem, and Elijah Muhammad made him National Representative of the Nation of Islam, his second in command.

“I’m for truth, no matter who tells it. I’m for justice, no matter who it is for or against. I’m a human being, first and foremost, and as such I’m for whoever and whatever benefits humanity as a whole.” – Malcolm X

He tirelessly worked to recruit and gain notoriety in his battle against racial hatred and the civil rights movement, and this involved him preaching on the streets of Harlem, and giving public speeches wherever he could. Whilst both him and Martin Luther King Jr. had the same objectives, they were extremely critical of each other’s methods. It was partly due to Malcolm’s pride and persistence that the terms coloured and negro were replaced by African American, or black, as he formed the foundations of black power, and black consciousness.

“The future belongs to those who prepare for it today.” – Malcolm X

His relationship with the Nation of Islam became sour, and his relationship with Elijah diminished because of separating views, and he announced his separation in 1964, but remained a Muslim. He founded the Muslim Mosque, Inc. and went on a pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are required to do at least once in their lives, and he changed his name to el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz.

“I believe in human beings, and that all human beings should be respected as such, regardless of their color.” – Malcolm X

In February 1965 he held a rally in New York that’s aim was to unite others for the human rights movement. As he began his speech in front of the small crowd in Audubon Ballroom in Harlem, a man stepped forward brandishing a Sawn-off shotgun and shot Malcolm in the chest. He was then shot another 14 times by other assailants representing the Nation of Islam. His death led to the prominent Black Power movement.

A retrospective: Martin Luther King Jr.

‘Michael King Jr.‘ was born in Atlanta, Georgia, and was christened Michael but later had his name changed to Martin. His life was surrounded by the church as his grandfather, and father were pastors at the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. In his teenage years he studied at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania, where he did a three year course on theology, and then a doctorate at Boston University where he graduated in 1955.

“Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself.” – Martin Luther King Jr.

He got a role as pastor at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, and this is where he began to advocate for racial equality and joined the committee of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. During his time as a protestor he was arrested over twenty times, and his home was bombed, but he was a determined man and this just encouraged him even more. The civil rights movement was getting stronger and its voice was being heard, and in 1957 he became elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

In 1963 the March on Washington became synonymous with the Civil Rights Movement, which saw 250,000 people gather by the Lincoln memorial in Washington D.C, America’s capital city. The world’s press were there, who took note of the various speeches by activists, and most notably the speech that made Martin Luther King, Jr infamous.

“I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today!” – Martin Luther King, Jr

In 1964, at just 35 years old, King became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace prize for his contributions to racial equality through non violent methods. The United States of America created a landmark moment when the Civil Rights Act of 1964 essentially made discrimination illegal. There’s just too much to quote as it’s an extremely lengthy, but to put it simply, it outlawed public segregation, and made employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion or sex against the law.

“That old law about ‘an eye for an eye’ leaves everybody blind. The time is always right to do the right thing. – Martin Luther King, Jr

In Memphis, Tennessee, April 4th, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr was staying at the Lorraine Motel. ‘James Earl Ray‘ fired a rifle containing a .30 bullet at King when he was stood on the balcony of the second floor of the motel.

“The bullet entered through King’s right cheek, breaking his jaw and several vertebrae as it traveled down his spinal cord, severing his jugular vein and major arteries in the process, before lodging in his shoulder” – Wikipedia

He was rushed to the local hospital, but surgeons were unable to save his life and he died just over an hour after he was shot. King instantly became a Martyr to the Civil Rights Movement across the world, as he died for his passion and his beliefs.

A retrospective: Nelson Mandela

‘Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela‘ was a South African politician, philosopher, revolutionary and anti-apartheid demonstrator, and he was a socialist who served as the first black South African President from 1994 to 1999 after his release from prison. Nelson had a long and complicated life which I will discuss further.

“No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion.” Nelson Mandela

Nelson was born to a village chief, and was born and raised in Mvezo, South Africa, and belonged to the Thembu dynasty, and was baptised at the local Methodist church. His father died at the age of 12 and he was adopted by the regent of the Thembu people, chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo, and lived the remainder of his childhood at the royal residence in Mqhekezweni.

“I learned that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.” – Nelson Mandela

When he reached adulthood he studied law, and upon getting his degree he practised being a lawyer in Johannesburg. This is when he became involved with politics and decided to join the opposition to the racially motivated, white supremacist government, and he secretly joined the South African Communist Party, where he began to promote social rights for black citizens of South Africa, and he joined the African National Congress in 1942.

“I detest racialism because I regard it as a barbaric thing, whether it comes from a black man or a white man.” Nelson Mandela

Initially he peacefully protested against the discrimination and racist tactics of the South African white government, and he created a law firm with his friend Oliver Tambo to represent underprivileged blacks who were caught up in protests. For almost 20 years Nelson and his comrades held rallies and protested peacefully but it was futile, and it was decided that guerilla style tactics was more effective against the worsening apartheid, and he co founded the Umkhonto we Sizwe. In 1963 this came to an end when he was charged with political offences and sentenced to life imprisonment.

“Religion is one of the most important forces in the world. Whether you are a Christian, a Muslim, a Buddhist, a Jew, or a Hindu, religion is a great force, and it can help one have command of one’s own morality, one’s own behavior, and one’s own attitude.” – Nelson Mandela

During his time in prison he reached legendary status and became an icon for black resistance against South Africa’s apartheid regime. He spent 27 years in prison, and after much international public and political protests, the new President of South Africa, Frederik Willem de Klerk announced his release date. Even after his release his ways didn’t change. He was considerably older, and much more educated as he’d studied a bachelors in law during his time in prison, but he still insisted on protest and fought for the rights for blacks to vote.

“As long as poverty, injustice and gross inequality persist in our world, none of us can truly rest.” – Nelson Mandela

In 1993 both Nelson and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace prize for ridding South Africa of apartheid, and they negotiated the country’s first multiracial elections. In 1994, during a democratic election, Nelson was inaugurated as the country’s first black president, with de Klerk as Vice President. This was the end of years of struggles and inequality for black citizens of South Africa, and Nelson Mandela had successfully turned a page in African history. In 1999, at the age of 82 he retired from politics , but didn’t leave the public arena until he was 92, and in 2013, age 95 he passed away at his home in Johannesburg.

July 18th, Nelson’s birthday, became internationally, Mandela day which was created to promote world peace and unity. Not only did he bring peace, but he brought equality, especially by bringing women into the political arena which had never been seen before since South Africa began. As well as equality and rights, he brought education to rural Africa, and led a fight against the life taking disease AIDS.

“The Mandela Day Global Network is a community of organisations, government, corporates and individuals that partner with the Foundation to drive Mandela Day and pursue its objectives. It is a base for the strategic partnerships of organisations with common goals aimed at globally coordinating efforts, sharing information and linking the needs to resources.” – MandelaDay

A retrospective: Mark Twain

‘Samuel Langhorne Clemens‘, or how most know him as, ‘Mark Twain‘, was born in 1835, in ‘Florida, Missouri‘. At the age of four he moved to ‘Hannibal, Missouri‘, which could well have heavily influenced some of his literary works. He stayed at Hannibal until he was seventeen, and chose to leave as violence and abuse of slaves was commonplace. He was frequently told that slavery was an institution approved by God, but this didn’t sit well with him, so he fulfilled his boyhood dream by becoming a steamboat pilot, which was a highly paid and respectable job, but this was a brief career, as the Civil War broke out and he became part of the Confederate Army, but his involvement was short lived and he decided to pursue a future in ‘Virginia City, Nevada‘, where he gained a job working for the local newspaper, ‘Territorial Enterprise‘ after impressing the editor with several letters he sent. He became part of the writing team that were known as the ‘Sagebrush Bohemians‘, where he found success.

“Go to Heaven for the climate, Hell for the company.” – Mark Twain

He was raised as a ‘Presbyterian‘, which came about due to his Scottish heritage, but as he experienced life in Virginia City, where gambling, drinking, violence, political unrest, and riots, he didn’t remain one for long. As he continued to develop as a writer, Samuel started to sign some of his work as Mark Twain, which would eventually become as pseudonym that everyone would know him by. In 1864 he decided it was time to move to ‘San Francisco, California‘, to try his hand at being a full-time reporter for the ‘Call‘.

“There are basically two types of people. People who accomplish things, and people who claim to have accomplished things. The first group is less crowded.” – Mark Twain

He was invited by a humorist called ‘Artemus Ward‘, to contribute towards a book he was publishing, but it was presented too late, and instead it was printed in the ‘New York Saturday Press‘, and overnight, Mark Twain attained a celebrity presence in the United States of America, with the story ‘Jim Smiley and his Jumping Frog‘. It was November 1865, and Samuel Clemens was no more. Mark Twain was born, and would become one of the world’s most renowned satirists.

“God created wars so Americans could learn geography” – Mark Twain

As he matured as a writer, his workload got dramatically more gruelling and not only did he do tours lecturing, but he was writing for several newspapers, and in 1867 he travelled across the country to set up residence in ‘New York City‘, but that was short lived as he set about a transatlantic journey to ‘Europe‘ and parts of ‘Asia‘. This was funded by the ‘San Francisco Alta California‘ (who he’d become a travel consultant for), so long as he wrote about his adventure, and this became known as ‘The Innocents Abroad‘ which was published in 1869 and was a literary success. Within the next three years upon returning to New York, he met a lady, married, moved to ‘Buffalo, New York State‘, bought into a newspaper and published another book in 1872, titled, ‘Roughing it‘, which was a semi autobiographical novel based on his experiences in the West of the United States which was written in a humorous style. The following year he published another book, ‘United States: The Gilded Age‘, with his friend, ‘Charles Dudley‘, which was political satire, and one of the characters had a play constructed about him, which had moderate success.

All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn.” – Ernest Hemingway

He continued working as a writer for newspapers but he began working on the book that would gain him world wide notoriety, ‘The Adventures of Tom Sawyer‘, which was published in 1876, which was influenced by his experiences living beside the ‘Mississippi River‘. The book is set in a fictional town of St. Petersburg, in the 1840s, and nine years later he published its sequel who’s about Tom’s friend, titled ‘Adventures of Huckleberry Finn‘. Both books were a huge success which were enjoyed by children and adults alike. After the second book was published in 1885, he travelled to Europe, especially ‘Germany‘ and ‘Switzerland‘, where he published another memoir titled, ‘A Tramp Abroad‘.

He continued to write into the turn of the 20th century, but he never managed to reach the scale that he accomplished with his two ‘Adventures of...’ novels. In 1904 his wife passed away and his writing became considerably more bitter, and he wrote articles displaying his contempt for several famous writers, and his last real book was his autobiography which was published by the ‘University of California‘, one hundred years after his death.

Political views

Little was it known that he was an avid supporter of the reformists in the lead up to the ‘Russian Revolution‘ as he believed that the Tsar needed removing violently as peaceful measures could never work.

“I am said to be a revolutionist in my sympathies, by birth, by breeding and by principle. I am always on the side of the revolutionists, because there never was a revolution unless there were some oppressive and intolerable conditions against which to revolute.”

With him growing up by the Mississippi, he was fully aware of the abuse, neglect, and the lack of preservation of life that the black slaves had to endure, and because of this, he was a firm supporter of ‘slavery abolition‘. He also made it very clear that white man had the privilege in America, and non-whites were treated like second class citizens, as well as the black slaves, the Chinese also got a rough deal when they were exploited when they arrived on American soil. He also included that when white man colonised anywhere in the world, the indigenous people there suffered. He was also one of the most famous people to stand up for women’s rights, and suffrage where women were just as entitled to vote as men were.

Religion

As I stated earlier, he was raised a Presbyterian, but as a young man his faith left him, and he became critical and outspoken about organised religion, and at the time America was becoming ‘antiCatholic‘ and he supported this as a vast number of pro-slavery supporters were Catholic, especially in the south. He remained very skeptical of religion throughout his life, and was the first to criticise its hypocrisy, but he remained a believer in God, despite it troubling him. In his literary works he often poked fun at religion, and it was a key focus often, especially in his Huckleberry Finn novel.

“It ain’t those parts of the Bible that I can’t understand that bother me, it is the parts that I do understand.” – Mark Twain

“No man that has ever lived has done a thing to please God–primarily. It was done to please himself, then God next.” – Mark Twain

To trust the God of the Bible is to trust an irascible, vindictive, fierce and ever fickle and changeful master; to trust the true God is to trust a Being who has uttered no promises, but whose beneficent, exact, and changeless ordering of the machinery of His colossal universe is proof that He is at least steadfast to His purposes; whose unwritten laws, so far as the affect man, being equal and impartial, show that he is just and fair; these things, taken together, suggest that if he shall ordain us to live hereafter, he will be steadfast, just and fair toward us. We shall not need to require anything more.” – Mark Twain

God, so atrocious in the Old Testament, so attractive in the New–the Jekyl and Hyde of sacred romance.” – Mark Twain

As you can see, Mark Twain is a rare breed. He has faith, and isn’t afraid to declare it, but also understands the hypocrisy and nature of organised religion. This is a theist that I have no shame to admit I admire. He wasn’t afraid to stand out from the crowd, or rock the boat. He even said that if you always agree with the majority, then it’s time to step back and take a hard look at yourself. He died in 1910 of a heart attack, at the age of 74.

“I do not fear death. I had been dead for billions and billions of years before I was born, and had not suffered the slightest inconvenience from it.” – Mark Twain

A retrospective: Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr was born in Denmark’s capital city, Copenhagen in 1885, and was a son of Danish professor, Christian Bohr, who studied under Carl Ludwig, and gained a Doctor of philosophy (Ph.D) in physiology. Bohr studies at the Latin school Gammelholm, before enrolling at Copenhagen University to study physics, astronomy, mathematics and philosophy. With his father being a professor he had access to his laboratory, which he used to experiment in physics, and was awarded his masters and doctorate in 1911.

At the end of 1911 he decided to move to Cambridge, England, where he followed the work of Sir Joseph John Thompson, who was a Nobelprize winner due to his discovery of the electron, (a sub atomic particle). This is where Bohr’s fascination with Max Planck‘s theories of quantum mechanics began, which is the study of nature at the smallest scale (atomic and sub atomic). Bohr’s research formed the basis of future atomic discovery and research.

He remained as a teacher in England for several years before he returned to work at Copenhagen University where he set up the institute of theoretical physics, which he’d continue to run until his death.

Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real. If quantum mechanics hasn’t profoundly shocked you, you haven’t understood it yet.” – Niels Bohr

His work of the structure of atoms gained his the Nobel Peace Prize in 1922, and he’d spend the remainder of his career studying atomic nuclei, and their transmutations and disintegrations, which would lead to further discovery in the field of nuclear fission (liquid droplet theory) which is essentially the splitting of an atom, which releases a large amount of energy, and led the way to splitting uranium atoms and the development of the atom bomb. .

“Liquiddrop Model, in nuclear physics, a description of atomic nuclei in which the nucleons (neutrons and protons) behave like the molecules in a drop of liquid.” – Britannica

Towards the twilight years of his life, Bohr found a new interest in molecular biology, and his later work involved the thoughts on his problems of life, and upon his death in 1962 he was a published author of over 115 works. After the war had ended, despite his research being partially responsible for the destructive force of the atom bomb, he called for it to be used for purpose of peace, not war. He helped put together the Atoms for Peace conference where he won the award Atoms for Peace himself, for his efforts in the area of physics.