The science of morality is interpreted by empirical findings based on the senses, and is in effect linked to the scientific method in where observation and experimentation to acquire knowledge, to form an understanding of the subject is in play. Many sceptics claim that science doesn’t have the means to determine what can be moral or immoral, but observable facts are reached by using the scientific method, yet the whole concept of morality is about well-being and living a virtuous life, yet what’s good for one person could be detrimental to another.
So can science actually determine morality? Science attempts to be objective, and reach a conclusion based on reason, reality and facts gathered from evidence. Two of the biggest questions in philosophy and science are; who are we? Where did we come from? Many people of faith believe that we are here because we are made in the image of god, and were placed on Earth to rule a dominion over other life forms, and with us being in God’s image we have a morality giver. Yet this is purely speculative, without justification and is subjective to the religion a person puts their faith into. For something to be universally moral, it has to be based on facts or how else can it be agreed upon?
“Psychological and neuroscience research both tell us that morality, our mental ability to tell right from wrong in our behaviors and the behaviors of others, is a product of evolution. Morality has been passed on through the course of evolution because it helps us to live in large social groups by enhancing our ability to get along and interact with others. – Source
So using that standard, religion can not be moral. Morality is in two parts and the first part is how you act and the more empathy, compassion and humility you use, then the greater the chances are you’ll do something for the greater good that’s beneficial to others; and the second part is how your actions make you feel, and if you do something bad, you feel guilt, resentment or remorse, then it’s likely that if put in that same situation again you’ll try and change your ways for the greater good. Is having expectations supplied by a god, who doesn’t want you to worship anyone but them, being moral or is it just being obedient and following the rules? Morality is about being about to distinguish between good and bad, wrong or right. Being moral is about trying to work for the betterment of all, not just the ones who are part of your elite club..
“Morality must relate, at some level, to the well-being of conscious creatures. If there are more and less effective ways for us to seek happiness and to avoid misery in this world—and there clearly are—then there are right and wrong answers to questions of morality” – Sam Harris
Very often a person’s view of morality is derived from cultural traits and expectations, and people are conditioned socially to act in a certain way that doesn’t infringe the rights of other sentient beings. Many philosophers arrive that morality is inherent from birth, and to be socially accepted into a pack, then we must adhere to standard or principles to maintain an equilibrium so we can multiply as a species. Whilst science can’t directly determine what’s moral and what’s immoral, it can certainly study empirical evidence to determine if an action is going to constitute in the well-being of others, and what can be done to reduce suffering of the majority. So science can determine what’s true, but not what’s right. Yet, by using the scientific method we can reach moral conclusions. Take murder as an example. To take another person’s life is an infringement on their rights as a human, and it causes suffering to the victim and those close to them. But if you had a choice to save 100 people and let one die, would that judgement be a moral one, as the decision was for greater good, or is it a decision that can’t have any moral implications as a choice had to be made or everyone would die.
Every day, without fail, there are narrow minded religious apologists claiming that their god provides morality, and some argue even further and claim that their god provides objective morality, or absolute morality, and quite frankly it’s embarrassing and a tiresome debate as they simply refuse to accept that morality is evolutionary and a social construct. Morality is knowledge, and it’s knowledge about recognising the difference between right and wrong. Doing something right is about promoting happiness, good will and treating others with respect. Doing something wrong is promoting distress, lack of compassion, understanding and empathy. As a social species we gain knowledge through experience and through the senses. We have emotions like a conscience that informs us when we’ve done something wrong, and with that usually comes remorse and regret. In future we tend to avoid the same actions as our conscience can haunt us and make us feel awful, even if the action was unintentional.
Everyone must have heard a religious apologist asking how a non-believer can make the claim that Hitler was objectively evil, or how torturing a baby is wrong. You really have to ponder the mental reasoning that they are devoid of to contemplate questions like that, and even provided with evidence that morality can be acquired, studied and observed through various philosophies and ways of life, they either claim that without god you’ve no moral framework, or if they are being backed into a corner, they suggest that we borrow the morality that was given by YHWH through Jesus, or Muslims claim through Muhammed and Allah. If they truly believe that their gods supply them with a moral framework then by all means let them live their lives the way they see fit, but don’t claim a moral superiority because you believe that an non-theist by default is nihilistic, narcissistic and a sociopath.
Moral ignorance is simply not understanding whether something is moral or not, and this is why theists, especially of the Abrahamic flavours, make the claim that you need god. But who’s to say that the opinions of the said god that’s written down in scripture is factually moral? Their argument usually comes in the form of god is perfect, he has perfect thoughts, so his morals are perfect. But is there any proof of this claim? First off, the burden of proof lies with them, as they make the claim that without god’s absolutes a moral framework can’t be established, but they not only have to prove beyond doubt that their god exists, but that what he claims are morals are actually morals, and not just commands that he wishes for. Wanting something because you are a megalomaniac who will kill if you don’t worship him, or dare to worship false idols, isn’t what I’d consider an appropriate agent for supplying a moral foundation, and I’m sure you’ll agree.
Moral ignorance, as an example is your neighbour is grooming children, but you don’t inform the correct authorities as you’re unaware what’s going on, so this is no fault of yours; but, what if you know that they are grooming children, but you’re unaware that it’s morally wrong? Do any of the religious scriptures suggest that it’s morally wrong to groom children? At a guess, I’d suggest not, but as a human being, who’s educated in social groups, we are inherently aware that it’s wrong in a number of ways. The first is it’s a child, so straight away a law has been broken as they are underage, and without the ability to understand what consensual means. Secondly, you are taking advantage of their naivety, and innocence and they more than likely aren’t even aware of what’s truly happening, and thirdly you are inflicting abuse against their rights as a human being, and will no doubt make them a future victim who will be left scarred from their tormentor.
Are we expected to adhere to moral standards? I’d argue that it’s our moral responsibility, and as ethical agents, we are obliged to apply good will to every decision we make that may affect, or influence another person. This is where consideration, and another person’s well being comes into play. If you witnessed someone have a seizure and inevitably begin convulsing, and despite knowing the recovery position, you just idly stand by watching, are you complicit in allowing that person’s death, and displaying an example of a moral failure? Of course you are, humans are hardwired by emotions, and upon seeing this you may panic, lose your calm and become flustered, but it’s natural to feel these emotions as you’re instinctive primary concern will be to try and save that person, even if they mean nothing to you. You do it because you’re expected through good will, regardless of the hope of reward, like Emmanuel Kant discusses in the Kantian theory.
“David Hume, 18th century Scottish philosopher, argues that actually our emotions can play a role in our moral makeup (as opposed to the Greco ideology of sole reason). For Confucius, benevolence — acts of kindness — is the prime virtue. Additionally, Confucian protégé, Mencius, in one of his books, utters, “Benevolence is the heart of man, and rightness his road” – Source
There are many theories, and philosophies surrounded ethics, morality and living a virtuous life.
Buddhism focuses on the ‘Four Noble Truths‘, which are;
• The Truth of Suffering;
• The Truth of the Cause of Suffering;
• The Truth of the End of Suffering;
• The Truth of the Path that Leads to the End of Suffering.
The Four Noble Truths are reached through the ‘Noble Eightfold Path‘, which are;
• Right Understanding;
• Right Thought;
• Right Speech,
• Right Action;
• Right Livelihood;
• Right Effort;
• Right Mindfulness;
• Right Concentration.
Stoicism isn’t too dissimilar to Buddhism, as it too is about reaching a virtuous, noble life, and they follow the ‘Four Cardinal Virtues‘, which are;
• Wisdom : Includes excellent deliberation, good judgment, perspective, good sense.
• Justice : Includes good-heartedness, benevolence, public service, fair dealing.
• Courage : Includes bravery, perseverance, authenticity, confidence.
• Temperance: Includes orderliness, self-control, forgiveness, humility.
Stoics primarily focused on what is virtuous, and not concerning yourself with what’s beyond your control, and having the ability to distinguish between good, bad, and indifference. The good being the Cardinal Virtues, and the bad being the direct opposite of them, foolishness, injustice, cowardice, and excessiveness.
Aretaic ethics, (virtuous) is an area of philosophy that many of the wise of Ancient Greece discussed, which focused around the areas of;
These were all the things that they considered to be essential to successfully function within a social community.
“Of all the varieties of virtues, liberalism is the most beloved.” – Aristotle
Liberalism is perhaps one of the most important social and political philosophies, as it covers the area of equality, and since many religions are oppressive, and disregard equality, then they stumble in their delusional world that they somehow have the moralhigh ground.Liberalismobviously focuses on liberty, and freedom, but also coversareas like;
• Individual rights: human and civil rights;
• Freedom of religion;
• Freedom from religion;
• Gender, sexual and racial equality
These are social foundations that heavilyinfluence the humanistic philosophical approach, where the focus is on the agency and value of humans as individuals and as a whole, using reason and empathy towards all sentient life. In the U.K humanism is a recognised, registered charity and are involved in many areas of reform which include;
• Human rights: blasphemy laws; gender mutilation; forced marriage; freedom of speech; and pro-choice: abortion rights and assisted dying.
• Animal cruelty
• Scientific method
• Progressivism: morality; economic reform; efficiency and social welfare
• Climate changeand global warming
All the above examples are all adhering to a system of values and principles of conduct that’s expected for a society to flourish for the overall greater good, and I’d say the virtuous source of morality that comes from the Ancient Greek schools of thought are probably the most influential, particularly the Aristotelian views:
“The ultimate end of human action is happiness.
Happiness consists in acting in accordance with reason.
Acting in accordance with reason is the distinguishing feature of all the traditional virtues. – Source
Ultimately it seems that most philosophies are enforced by the use of reason, and reason is the ability to think, and form judgements using logical and rational understanding. I’ve already mentioned the Kantian theory, but at its basic level it amounts to this simple process:
“You ought to do your duty (simply because it is your duty).
Reason guides you to this conclusion.” – Source
This is perhaps one of the most debated topics between theists and atheists seen on social media, and Christians always claim he was an an atheist as no true Christian would perform the atrocities that Hitler, and his devout followers were responsible for, but people who think using logic and rationality know full well that’s far from the truth, and many leaders have killed in the name of their god for political gain. It’s pure ignorance to not acknowledge this. In all fairness, the only person who truly knows what Adolf Hitler’s religious views were are Hitler himself, but he’s dead, so the only option we have is to obtain facts through reliable sources. I’ve written a few articles previously that touched upon Hitler, and the Nazi party’s religious beliefs, and I shall amalgamate them into this article, and add to it.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945)
Adolphus Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, in Braunau am Inn, an Austrian town beside the Austro-German border. He would ultimately become the chancellor of Germany from 1933, and become the dictator of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI) and was known as Der Führer, but let’s take a step back and start at the beginning. At the time of his birth, Austria was the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and was predominantly German speaking, and the population of Jews was approximately 2,000,000, and tensions were high with the Christian Social Party, who were an antisemitic, Catholic nationalist party, who were considered one of the key influences for Hitler’s Nazism. The vast majority of people in the Austro-Hungarian Empire were Catholic, with Protestants, Eastern Orthodox, Judaism and Islam making up the rest. A small minority were pagans, and barely anyone openly admitted atheism, as it simply wasn’t accepted in society as everyone was expected to adhere to a faith.
Adolf’s father was born out of wedlock, Alois Schicklgruber, changed his name to Alois Hitler, and Adolf was born from Klara Pölzl, Alois’ third wife. She was deeply devout in her a Catholic religion, and regularly attended church with her children, and on her deathbed in 1907, where she had terminal breast cancer, she concluded that her fate was god’s will. Her death was extremely traumatic and had a lasting impression on her 18 year old son. Hitler tried to get into the Academy of Arts in Vienna due to his dreams of being a painter. One of his most prized and famous paintings was that of Mary and baby Jesus.
Mother Mary with the Holy Child Jesus Christ
He failed the exam and started to paint watercolours of Vienna to earn enough money to move to Munich in 1913. Hitler found himself interested in politics from a young age and paid particular interest to German racist nationalism propagated by politician Georg von Schönerer. It wasn’t until the outbreak of the Great War (World War one) that he found his purpose in life. In 1923 he attempted to seize power in Munich and was jailed. During the imprisonment he started writing his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle).
After his release he gained support for his promotion of Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism. Hitler was appointed as Chancellor and leader of the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei on 30/01/33. He immediately started to create his Nazi Germany with one political party pushing National Socialism (Nazism), promoting antisemitism & anti-communism, and promoted his idea of the Third Reich: Nazi Germany and its regime from 1933-45. The First Reich was the medieval ‘HOLY’ Roman Empire, which lasted until 1806. The Second Reich included the German Empire from 1871-1918. Christianity had an active involvement in the Nazi party, and how, especially in the Catholic Church the involvement went all the way to the top, and even the Pope Pius XII (Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli) never condemned their actions, and met Hitler on several occasions, and signed the Reichskonkordat, which was treaty between the Nazi party, and the Vatican when he was the Cardinal Secretary of State, before he became the Pope.
Nazi Third Reich belt buckle ‘God with us’
Christian apologists use desperate measures to try and make society believe that the Catholic Church wasn’t in bed with the emerging Nazi party, in the 1930s, previous to the events of World War II, but it’s been covered by many historians, and especially in the book ‘Hitler’s Pope’ by John Cornwell. Scholars have researched, and studied Nazi records, and it’s been clarified that the non-religious played next to no part other than victims of the Axis forces. At the time of the rise of the Nazi party, the majority of Germany was of some branch of Christian faith, and most of them were strong supporters of Hitler and his values. The support from Christianity and its churches continued even after Germany started World War II, and the true nature of the cruel dictatorship came to light. The only way that fascism could rise to power, was through support, but why did it gain support in Germany, Italy and other European countries that were predominantly Christian? In Germany 2/3rds were Protestant Christian and the rest Catholic leaving a tiny percentage adhering to paganism.
“We demand the freedom of all religious confessions in the state, insofar as they do not jeopardize the state’s existence or conflict with the manners and moral sentiments of the Germanic race. The Party as such upholds the point of view of a positive Christianity without tying itself confessionally to any one confession. It combats the Jewish-materialistic spirit at home and abroad and is convinced that a permanent recovery of our people can only be achieved from within on the basis of the common good before individual good.” – Excerpt from the Nazi Party Platform of 1920
Johan Heinrich Ludwig Müller, was a Prussian member of the Nazi party, and was a prominent member of the ‘German Christian’ movement, which was a sect of the German Evangelical Church (Deutsche Evangelische Kirche), where he became Reichsbischof (Reich Bishop). The ‘German Christian’ were associates with Positive Christianity (Positives Christentum) which was a combination of Nazi ideology and Christianity with an obsession with ‘Christ Killers’, who were Jews. They encouraged Christian anti-Semitism which became responsible for the Holocaust, and wish to ‘de-Judaize’ the Bible and refused to accept that Jesus was a Jew and believed that he was the first true Aryan.
I have not tolerated an atheist in the ranks of the SS. Every member has a deep faith in God, in what my ancestors called in their language Waralda, the ancient one, the one who is mightier than we are.” – Heinrich Himmler Reichsführer SS
In Europe from the start of the 20th century, the Jews were seen as being materialistic, and supporters of modernism, which angered both Catholics and Protestants and enforced anti-semitism, and the Germanic nations began to consider the Jews as a curse. Many agreed with Müller that Jesus was the first true Aryan soldier who was put on earth to cleanse it of Jews, and that the Aryans are the only real humans that are descendants of Adam and Eve. Hitler himself said in several speeches that he was continuing God’s work in his fight against the Jews. The term Untermensch became a common way for the German population to describe the Jews, which means ‘Subhuman’. The anti-semitism in Germany was so strong that they considered the Jews to be children of Satan, and like vermin, they needed to be exterminated. Even as Jews were taken from their homes and taken to Nazi death camps, the support from the common German remained strong. Germanic Aryanism was described as the Volkisch movement, and Joseph Goebbels, who was Hitler’s close friend, and the minister of Propaganda, publicly stated that if the Nazi party had adopted this ideology sooner, then they’d have gained power after Germany’s defeat in World War I.
“What does Christianity mean today? National Socialism is a religion. All we lack is a religious genius capable of uprooting outmoded religious practices and putting new ones in their place. We lack traditions and ritual. One day soon National Socialism will be the religion of all Germans. My Party is my church, and I believe I serve the Lord best if I do his will, and liberate my oppressed people from the fetters of slavery. That is my gospel.” – Joseph Goebbels Nazi Propagandist
The Nazi party gained much support from the German nationals because they were scared of democracy which brought secularism, and with Communism also spreading around Europe, fascism was Germany’s defence against its influence. Many of the high ranking Nazis were born into Catholic households, were baptised and attended churches regularly. Adolf Hitler went to school at a Monastery, and found the power the priests had to be intoxicating, and according to some scholars he even considered priesthood before his interest in politics began. In 1933 he gave a speech to the Reichstag where he said that ‘Christianity was the “foundation” for German values’, which received a standing ovation. Obviously the Nazi party used propaganda, and perhaps some of Hitler’s speeches were designed to touch the hearts of the listeners, but it cannot be denied that the 60,000,000 inhabitants of Germany, as a majority supported Hitler and the Nazi party. Germany became a socialist, nationalist state, and the people who lived there couldn’t have been prouder of that fact. To be fair, if any dissent towards the Nazi party came to light, the Nazi secret police, the Gestapo were quick to respond, and often the consequences weren’t favourable, and this led to fear being one of the reasons the church stayed in line, but even despite this, many top theologians continued to openly support the ideology of the Nazi party.
“Secular schools can never be tolerated because such a school has no religious instruction and a general moral instruction without a religious foundation is built on air; consequently, all character training and religion must be derived from faith . . . We need believing people.” – Adolf Hitler
The youth of Germany as a whole supported the Nazi regime, and the majority of university lecturers, and theologians promoted Nazi ideology to the students. The German population wished for Germany to rise to a strong nation again, after their decline after the Great War (World War I), and by allowing Hitler to rise to power, in the mind’s of the voters, this would become a reality. Franz von Papen, who became chancellor of Germany in 1932, was born into an aristocratic Roman Catholic family, and he remained devout his entire life. Due to little support from the Reichstag, Papen had no option but to resign, and helped convince the German president, Paul von Hindenburg, to appoint Hitler as the new German chancellor in 1933.
”God gave the savior to the German people. We have faith, deep and unshakeable faith, that he [Hitler] was sent to us by God to save Germany.” – Hermann Göring Geheime Staatspolizei
”We demand freedom for all religious faiths in the state, insofar as they do not endanger its existence or offend the moral and ethical sense of the Germanic race. The party as such represents the point of view of a positive Christianity without binding itself to any one particular confession. It fights against the Jewish materialist spirit within and without, and is convinced that a lasting recovery of our folk can only come about from within on the principle” – Point 24 of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party
Even after the war ended, many religious leaders refused to take accountability for their support of the Nazi brutality, and openly encouraging the Nazi uprising, and some never, ever showed remorse or acknowledged their guilt. It’s true that as the war effort continued, and more atrocities and brutality occurred, the churches’ support declined, but the damage had already been done by then. Religious leaders, politicians and the general public as a majority supported Hitler’s rise to power, and accepted his totalitarian dictatorship, and the brutality of the Nazi party, the Schutzstaffel (SS), and the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo). Whether a large number of them regretted their allegiance is probable, but not forgivable. Christianity allowed, and supported the rise of the Nazi party, and are complicit in the butchering of Jews. Apologists insist that Germany, and the Nazi party were predominantly atheist, and this couldn’t be any further from the truth. Religious groups looked to the regime to rid Germany of non-theism, and the traditionalists despised leftist, liberal and secularist ideologies.
Church bell in Herxheim am Berg ”Everything for the Fatherland — Adolf Hitler.”
In 1933 there was a vote by the Protestants, and two thirds of them were in favour of the churches combining into one ‘German Christian’ sect, and Müller was chosen to lead them, and history states that the racial Nazi ideology that we are all aware of was implemented into the Christian faith of Germany. Christianity clearly had no concerns with racism, and Christianity forced non-Aryans out of representing the churches and attending them. It can’t be disputed that Hitler’s religious methods and beliefs were unorthodox, but because they don’t comply with your traditional Christian methods, doesn’t mean that his beliefs are to be refuted and replaced with atheism.
Mother’s Cross of Honour
”The Führer is deeply religious, though completely anti-Christian. He views Christianity as a symptom of decay. Rightly so. It is a branch of the Jewish race. This can be seen in the similarity of their religious rites. Both (Judaism and Christianity) have no point of contact to the animal element, and thus, in the end they will be destroyed. The Führer is a convinced vegetarian on principle.” – Joseph Goebbels
Adolf Hitler became increasingly critical of standard Christianity, but he was also extremely critical of atheism, something that many of the Nazi party sympathised with. In all seriousness, Hitler behaved like a White supremacist, right wing, megalomania fuelled, narcissistic cult leader, who wanted to create his own religion that was founded on Christianity, but with the Jewish elements removed and replaced with Aryan. After the attempted assassination attempt in 1944, he publicly declared that he survived because of divine providence, which was god intervening so he could continue to pursue his work. So to conclude, the evidence suggests that not only was Hitler not an atheist, but he was also not a Christian, but he believed in god enough to believe he was doing god’s work.
“The völkisch-minded man, in particular, has the sacred duty, each in his own denomination, of making people stop just talking superficially of God’s will, and actually fulfill God’s will, and not let God’s word be desecrated. For God’s will gave men their form, their essence and their abilities. Anyone who destroys His work is declaring war on the Lord’s creation, the divine will.” – Adolf Hitler